Front Cover


Frost Prediction and Plant Protection

by William Ireland

Atmospheric Scientist William Ireland brings together the practical information he considers will be of interest to those who grow plants in frost-prone areas and the methods that are used to protect valuable crops from frost damage.This reference book also tells for the first time how to use Isaac Newton's 'law of cooling' to predict the temperature decrease overnight in a radiation frost and the time when a damaging temperature will be reached.



Chapter 1: DEFINITIONS: Frost forms, temperature, humidity, dew point and frost point, buoyancy, water, freezing and melting points.
Chapter 2: CLIMATE CHANGE: The greenhouse effect and global warming, Gaia hypothesis, long term temperature changes, volcanic eruptions, North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino.
Chapter 3: ADAPTATION OF PLANTS TO CLIMATE: Survival during winter, Raunkiaer's life forms, Therophytes, Cryptophytes, Hemicryptophytes, Chamaephytes, Phanerophytes, climate change and plant distribution, cold spells and plant damage, growing season, frost hardiness, inadequate acclimation, inadequate winter chilling.
Chapter 4: FREEZING OF PLANT MATERIAL: Ice growth in plants, surface ice barriers, plant cell ice barriers, cell walls, cell membranes, damage by extra-cellular ice, dehydration damage, non-equilibrium freezing damage, thawing damage.
Chapter 5: RADIATION FROST: Day-night temperature cycles, typical frost conditions, observed frost statistics, temperature inversion below screen height, effect of variable weather, effect of wind, effect of cloud, effect of fog and haze, effect of dew, effect of soil, effect of aspect, effect of elevation, effect of elevation in valleys, effect of katabatic wind, effect of lakes harbours and rivers, effect of cities.
Chapter 6: FROST PREDICTION AND PROTECTION MODELS: Frost prediction - Brunt model, net radiation - clear sky, net radiation - cloudy sky, empirical formulas for minimum air temperature, frost prediction - Newton's law of cooling, modelling ground surface heat flow, frost on plants, modelling crop heat flow, worked examples, protected crop heat balance.
Chapter 7: FROST PROTECTION: Site selection, probability of frost damage, measurements and forecasts for frost control, temperature measurement, humidity and net radiation measurement, forecasting with Newton's law of cooling, frost protection methods, active frost control, hidden costs, sharing resources, reliability, side effects.
Chapter 8: BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL FROST CONTROL: Reduced super cooling, increased super cooling, ice nucleating bacteria, ice nucleation inhibitors, genetic engineering, chemically-induced frost resistance, antitranspirant sprays, fertilisers, choline and ethanolamine, tyrosine, growth regulators, alar, ana, ccc, ethephon, hydrogen cyanamide, pp333.
Chapter 9: MODIFIED ENVIRONMENT FROST CONTROL: Bare ground, grass cover, orchard surface cover, orchard canopies, shelter, modification of surface emissivity, insulating foams, organic mulches, plastic film mulches, soil banking, raised fields, trunk wrappings, modification of trunk emissivity, modification of leaf emissivity, individual plant covers, shading screens, orangeries, greenhouses, light frames, cloches, plastic covers, walls and fences, buildings.
Chapter 10: HEATED ENVIRONMENT FROST CONTROL: Crop heat balance, smudge pots, stack heaters, solid fuel heaters, petroleum wax heaters, wax candles, wax trays, petroleum coke bricks, pipeline heaters, electric heaters, heater design, undertree irrigation.
Chapter 11: WATER SPRINKLING FROST CONTROL: Protected crop heat balance, sprinkling rate, starting and stopping sprinkling, super cooling, ground wetting, inadequate water, on-off pulsing, continuously variable pulse rate, fixed pulse rate sprinkling, targeted minisprinklers, artificial buds, sprinkling rate uniformity, loss of control, bud cooling rate.
Chapter 12: ARTIFICIAL FOG FROST CONTROL: Smoke particles, natural fog, frost-fighting fog, wind machine effect, heat balance, latent heat release.
Chapter 13: WIND MACHINE FROST CONTROL: Heat balance, limitations and variability, vertical-axis fans, ducted vertical-axis fans, ducted horizontal-axis fans, tilted-axis fans, near-horizontal-axis propellers, helicopters.
References: Over 200 papers, books and web pages quoted.

First Edition 2005
Copyright. W. Ireland
192 pages, 16 colour
54 figures, 18 photos
size 170 x 240mm
soft cover
203 references
13 chapters
ISBN 0-473-10108-4

Price, single copy, incl. Post and Packaging
Within New Zealand $NZ45.00
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