TABLE of CONTENTS
Chapter 1: DEFINITIONS: Frost forms, temperature,
humidity, dew point and frost point, buoyancy, water, freezing
and melting points.
Chapter 2: CLIMATE CHANGE: The greenhouse effect and
global warming, Gaia hypothesis, long term temperature changes,
volcanic eruptions, North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino.
Chapter 3: ADAPTATION OF PLANTS TO CLIMATE: Survival
during winter, Raunkiaer's life forms, Therophytes, Cryptophytes,
Hemicryptophytes, Chamaephytes, Phanerophytes, climate change and
plant distribution, cold spells and plant damage, growing season,
frost hardiness, inadequate acclimation, inadequate winter chilling.
Chapter 4: FREEZING OF PLANT MATERIAL: Ice growth
in plants, surface ice barriers, plant cell ice barriers, cell
walls, cell membranes, damage by extra-cellular ice, dehydration
damage, non-equilibrium freezing damage, thawing damage.
Chapter 5: RADIATION FROST: Day-night temperature
cycles, typical frost conditions, observed frost statistics, temperature
inversion below screen height, effect of variable weather, effect
of wind, effect of cloud, effect of fog and haze, effect of dew,
effect of soil, effect of aspect, effect of elevation, effect of
elevation in valleys, effect of katabatic wind, effect of lakes
harbours and rivers, effect of cities.
Chapter 6: FROST PREDICTION AND PROTECTION MODELS:
Frost prediction - Brunt model, net radiation - clear sky, net
radiation - cloudy sky, empirical formulas for minimum air temperature,
frost prediction - Newton's law of cooling, modelling ground surface
heat flow, frost on plants, modelling crop heat flow, worked examples,
protected crop heat balance.
Chapter 7: FROST PROTECTION: Site selection, probability
of frost damage, measurements and forecasts for frost control,
temperature measurement, humidity and net radiation measurement,
forecasting with Newton's law of cooling, frost protection methods,
active frost control, hidden costs, sharing resources, reliability,
Chapter 8: BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL FROST CONTROL:
Reduced super cooling, increased super cooling, ice nucleating
bacteria, ice nucleation inhibitors, genetic engineering, chemically-induced
frost resistance, antitranspirant sprays, fertilisers, choline
and ethanolamine, tyrosine, growth regulators, alar, ana, ccc,
ethephon, hydrogen cyanamide, pp333.
Chapter 9: MODIFIED ENVIRONMENT FROST CONTROL: Bare
ground, grass cover, orchard surface cover, orchard canopies, shelter,
modification of surface emissivity, insulating foams, organic mulches,
plastic film mulches, soil banking, raised fields, trunk wrappings,
modification of trunk emissivity, modification of leaf emissivity,
individual plant covers, shading screens, orangeries, greenhouses,
light frames, cloches, plastic covers, walls and fences, buildings.
Chapter 10: HEATED ENVIRONMENT FROST CONTROL: Crop
heat balance, smudge pots, stack heaters, solid fuel heaters, petroleum
wax heaters, wax candles, wax trays, petroleum coke bricks, pipeline
heaters, electric heaters, heater design, undertree irrigation.
Chapter 11: WATER SPRINKLING FROST CONTROL: Protected
crop heat balance, sprinkling rate, starting and stopping sprinkling,
super cooling, ground wetting, inadequate water, on-off pulsing,
continuously variable pulse rate, fixed pulse rate sprinkling,
targeted minisprinklers, artificial buds, sprinkling rate uniformity,
loss of control, bud cooling rate.
Chapter 12: ARTIFICIAL FOG FROST CONTROL: Smoke particles,
natural fog, frost-fighting fog, wind machine effect, heat balance,
latent heat release.
Chapter 13: WIND MACHINE FROST CONTROL: Heat balance,
limitations and variability, vertical-axis fans, ducted vertical-axis
fans, ducted horizontal-axis fans, tilted-axis fans, near-horizontal-axis
References: Over 200 papers, books and web pages quoted.
Appendix: NEWTON'S LAW OF COOLING.